Understanding the Terminologies When Working With Printed Circuit Boards

Working with a printed circuit board would mean dealing with a lot of terms that may sound very confusing and intimidating. Here is a short guide to the most common and useful ones:

The annular ring is the copper ring that surrounds a plated through hole.

The DRC or the design rule check is a software that checks the PCB for any errors. Traces that are too skinny or incorrectly touch, and drill holes too small are some of the errors that a drc checks, preventing any potential catastrophes.

Drill hits are places on the design, which indicate the places where holes are supposed to be drilled. Some poorly manufactured boards may have inaccurate drill hits due to the use of dull drill bits.

A finger refers to the metal pads exposed along the board’s edge. This is used to form a connection between 2 or more circuit boards.

Mouse bites refer to the alternative to a v-score (partial cuts through a printed circuit board that allows the board to easily snap along a line) when separating boards from larger panels. To create mouse bites, clustered drill hits are made on the board surface to create a weak spot.

A plated through hole refers to a hole on the surface of the board surrounded by an annular ring. This ring is plated all the way through both surfaces of the board. This can be used a connection point for through-hole components, a mounting hole or as a via through which a signal passes through.

A pogo pin refers to a spring-loaded contact. This is used in creating temporary contacts for programming or testing purposes.

pcbnetA reflow refers to melting a solder in order to make joints between the component leads and the pads.

A silkscreen refers to the symbols, images, numbers and letters on the surface of the board. Resolution of the silkscreen is often low and in white.

A slot is a term used for any hole made in the board that is not in circular. These slots may or may not have any plating.

A solder paste is a small ball of solder, which is suspended in gel medium. This is applied to the mount pad surface with the aid of a paste stencil. This is done on the surface of the board before all the components are attached. The solder within this paste melts during the reflow process. This will create mechanical as well as electrical joints between components and pads.

A pad is a section on the board surface with exposed metals where components are soldered.

A paste stencil refers to thin metal or plastic stencil lying over the surface of the board. This allows the deposition of solder paste only in specific areas during an assembly process.

A solder pot is a pot that is used for quick hand soldering of printed circuit boards that have through-hole components. The pot often contains small molten amounts of solder. The printed circuit board is quickly dipped into this and the solder joints are left on all of the exposed pads.

A solder jumper is a small blob of solder that is unintended and unwanted, which connects 2 adjoining pins on the component.

A surface mount is a manufacturing method allowing for simple setting of components on the board, without the leads passing through the holes on the board.

Thieving refers to the gridlines, hatching or dots of copper that were left on the surface of the board, where there are no traces or planes are present. This would reduce etching difficulty because there isn’t much excess copper that needs to be removed.

A trace refers to the continuous copper path found on the surface of the printed circuit board.


Athletes Buy Research Chemicals to Boost Endurance and Lose Fat

Are there drugs other than steroids and banned substances that could help boost physical endurance and maintain body well-being? It seems that scientists are constantly finding new formulas for this category of drugs, and the development is much faster than it was a decade or two ago.

After SARMs – or selective androgen receptor modulators – came into being, the new research chemical called GW-501516 was formulated and was found to be very effective in boosting the physical stamina of athletes and others who do a lot of physical exertion on a regular basis. Even people who exercise just for the sake of staying healthy, not even the exercise buffs, have found this drug to be very helpful, and buy research chemicals like GW-501516 frequently.

Over the years, GW-501516 has become so popular especially when it was found out that the physical boost came from its inherent characteristics that the drug burned fat on a faster scale than any other compound available. It burned fat instead of sugar, and you could imagine how that would come across to people too conscious of their weight.

research chemicalsActually, GW-501516 has many benefits but has two identified primary uses. Of course, the main use is its being an endurance-enhancing drug. The results of the drug on endurance increase are considered so staggering that the World Anti-Doping Association banned it in 2009 because of the large advantage it gave to users. The action is said to be very quick, and the user can see his endurance level increase within a few days of use. Before you decide to buy research chemicals, it would help to know that the common dosage for GW-501516 is 10 mg a day, although this can be increased to 20 mg per day.

For fat loss, GW 501516 has been shown to melt away fat at a much rapid pace. The other strong component of the drug is that ii is catabolic, meaning it allows the user to lose fat but not sacrifice the muscle, as other drugs of type is known to do. Most people who are on a fat-burning diet are not aware that they are also sacrificing muscle. This one allows you to hold on to more muscle than any standard fat-loss diet.

Experts are also advising that GW-501516 be used in consonance with other SARMs, which not only burns body fat but also adds lean muscle, making it really desirable for many. In case you decide to buy GW-501516 for this purpose – muscle building – the optimal dose is 20 mg a day, although users will still be able to receive this benefit at 10 mg a day.

GW-501516, for those used to steroids and other supplements, can be used in conjunction with any SARM, and with steroids or other supplements. Like any supplement, it should be cycled properly to avoid any possible side effects and to keep it as effective as possible. Don’t worry about storage issues when you buy research chemicals like GW-501516 because it has a very long half life, so it can be dosed once a day or split 12 hours apart. For most people, splitting the dose works nicely. The formula is also very effective when taken 30 to 45 before doing any work-out.

SARMs have been prescribed by doctors for patients that needed to reduce their triglycerides. Associated with this function is the benefit associated with reducing bad cholesterol and increasing good cholesterol. This makes it even more appealing to everyone, and they buy research chemicals like GW-501516 regularly.

All these benefits point to a general well-being as one of the effects of this compound. But take note that drugs are only supplementary in purpose, and is not meant to replace all the natural food that you need to be conscious of, when looking for a particular solution to a problem that may emanated from dietary habits.

The best way to a healthy body is still good nutrition and proper exercise, supported by a general positive attitude that can result from a feeling of contentment.


Some Things You Need to Know about Long Island Real Estate Prices

Real estate is one of the most valuable assets any person can get for themselves and their family. Not only does it provide people a space where they can live and/or establish their businesses, but it is also a potential investment that can help them earn a ton of money moving forward. But of course, just like any venture, proper knowledge of the game is essential to succeed. Whether you are a buyer or a seller, having better knowledge of Long Island real estate prices can come in handy.

Real Estate1. The average prices of properties in Long Island is currently going down- For the past few years, a drop on the mean prices of all real estate properties in Long Island is observed. There are many reasons pointing to this. The economic crisis has significantly affected the purchasing power of the people. The bubble that encouraged buyers to get homes are long gone. And rising costs have been pushing some realtors to the edge. For buyers, it means they can get homes at lower prices than usual. For sellers, it means having to be more creative to make a profit.

2. The current market for real estate is still active- In spite of the seemingly weakened market, the demand for these properties is still strong. It can be argued that these properties will never go out of style because every family or business entity needs a “living space” for their day-to-day business. And that can be had with the help of infrastructure such as homes and buildings. And for such a strategic location such as Long Island, the value of properties here won’t really drop too low. If you want more details then click here.

3. The demand for Long Island real estate is very strong- Statistics would show that fewer homes are being put up for sale in the Long Island area. This is mainly because some people feel that they would be selling properties at a loss if they pushed for it. But despite this (and the constant threat of local real properties losing their value), a lot of people are still seeking to get them. This is because they still see investments in homes and other infrastructure as something very useful. And this is true for both the short and long terms.

4. The market value of these properties is improving- There is still strong optimism that things will turn around for the better even in the midst of the economic crisis. This can be seen in the strong demand for Long Island real estate. The market is still very much active, especially now that summer season has arrived. People are willing to make deals. And more importantly, people see the value of these properties beyond the prices.

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Callaway Golf as Your Companion in Golfing

Callaway Golf has been a premier provider of sporting goods specifically for golfers out there since the 1980s. They have been famous for merging traditional golfing techniques with modern ones when it comes to creating their products. From equipment, to accessories, and other products, they have all sorts of things in store for the avid golfer. Among their other products are travel gears, practice aids, rangefinders, watches, headwear, golf bags, golf shoes, and even golf apparel. Today, the company distributes their products to almost 70 countries around the world.

Callaway GolfBeing primarily based in Carlsbad, California, Callaway Golf has gone a long way since it started with the Big Bertha in 1991. In fact, many modern clubs are modeled from the famous Big Bertha. Just to give you a background, Big Bertha was a driver launched in 1991. It is made of stainless steel while other drivers were still made out of persimmon wood at the time. Also, its head is relatively larger than those of other drivers in the market. Since the Big Bertha was introduced, other clubs and club lines were produced such as Great Big Bertha, Biggest Big Bertha, Great Big Bertha II, and Big Bertha 454. They also tried incorporating titanium into these lines.

Most of their products today are available through golf retailers and general sporting goods stores. They also coordinate with mass merchants. They have online services as well where they offer trade-in and pre-owned selling.

Among the products offered by Callaway Golf are drivers, fairway woods, hybrids, irons, wedges, and balls. You may be well aware already that you need to have a good set of golf clubs to dominate in the game, whether you are a beginner or a professional. Remember, drivers and woods can be used for long shots. Irons are usually used when you are 200 yards away from your shot. Hybrids function as both wood and iron. Wedges function pretty much like irons too, but for closer distances. They are extremely useful but usually taken for granted. What’s good about these products is that they’re offered in separate sets (for men, women, and even lefties).

Callaway Golf has been known ever since to push the boundaries of innovation. They are famous for their Hyperbolic Face and Fusion technology. Most clubs they produce are built of intricate forgings and quality materials. All they want to provide is high quality equipment for their customers. A lot of golfers prefer this brand over any other in the market because they have proven enough their professionalism in delivering good golfing equipment. Also, they have proven to be very active in the online world as their website is frequently maintained and very informative. Just visiting it would allow you to discover the current news about the company as well as their latest products. They could even help you decide which model is right for you.

They also have an extensive list of celebrity and professional golfer endorsers. Among them are Arnold Palmer, Annika Sorenstam, Justin Timberlake, and Seve Ballesteros. They also promoted the iconic game of Mario Golf: World Tour between May to September 2014. They also host other worldwide tours to keep their presence known. The supremacy of the products they offer gave them recognition in 2005, having received the Torch Award for Marketplace Ethics. The San Diego Better Business Bureau was the awarding body for this.

Are you interested in having Callaway Golf equipment? Browse through the catalogs of online retailers and see for yourself. These websites offer numerous golfing clubs, equipment, accessories, and apparel. Everything you need is right at the tip of your fingertips.


What makes for an amazing lanyard?

Nowadays, custom lanyards have risen as one of the best methods for promoting a company, brand, university or team. It’s easy for students, company members and other individuals to tote around a brand or university name when it’s hanging around their neck, in striking fonts and colors. Individuals can hang ID cards, water bottles and small coin purses from their lanyards all the while exposing their brand or team name to others.

Because of the effectiveness and charm of lanyards, many businesses and shops have extended their product lines to include both traditional and custom lanyards. But what makes a high-quality customized lanyard? And how and where do you get such cost-effective products?

What’s in a lanyard?

Custom lanyards are made up of different parts. Usually, customers are given the freedom to choose what kind of material, attachments and accessories they want for their lanyards. To give you an idea of the exhaustive amount of options you can choose from when making your own lanyards, read the list below.

The Six Types of Lanyard Material

There are six types of basic lanyard material. These materials were chosen for their strength, durability and appearance.

1. Polyester Lanyards

Custom lanyardsThis material is the most popular of the six types because of its quality and affordability. Polyester lanyards are great for large, clear images and fonts. They come in an assortment of colors. Depending on the source, you can find polyester lanyards priced at 0.58$ and above, per piece.

2. Tubular Lanyards

If you’re on a budget but need great quality lanyards nonetheless, then you should consider ordering tubular lanyards. These economic lanyards are best paired with bright colors and large fonts. They look and feel like a regular tubular shoelace, and are known to be sturdy. If you are looking for a good source of children’s lanyards, then you’ve just found your match! Some stores sell their tubular lanyards for the good price of 0.50$ per piece.

3. Woven Polyester Lanyards

Compared to regular polyester lanyards, the woven type exudes more grace and a defined look. If you’re looking for elegant appearance for both the lanyard material and the text, then look no further! Woven polyester lanyards may be sold at a minimum of 0.58$ per piece.

4. Nylon Lanyards

Nylon lanyards are known for their smooth feel and professional appearance. They are great for promoting brand awareness because they can accurately capture a company logo or image. Nylon lanyards may be sold at a minimum of $0.61 per piece, depending on your supplier.

5. Dye-sublimated Lanyards

If you’re looking for assurance that the brand name or text on your lanyard will never wear off, then dye-sublimated lanyards are for you. This type of lanyard is made of the toughest material that the shop has to offer. Because of the special printing process that the lanyards go through, you can rest assured that no amount of rough activity or exposure to the elements will tear or erase the design of your custom lanyards. These lanyards are expensive, and are usually priced starting from 1.00$ per piece.

6. Cord/Shoestring Lanyards

This type of lanyard is the newest addition to lanyard materials at If you are looking for a lanyard that provides comfort, readability and durability, then cord lanyards are certainly for you! This kind of lanyard is relatively new to the market. They are usually sold for 0.64$ per piece.

Aside from the basic material for your lanyards, several online lanyard shops also offer different types of hooks, attachments, text and image options. All you have to do is search for the right shop for you, make the necessary arrangements, and bring all of your ideas for great custom lanyards to life!


Funeral Homes and Cemeteries: Knowing the Difference

There are some people who think funeral homes and cemeteries are the same but this is far from the truth. These are words that people left by their loved ones have to deal with. When a person dies, a funeral home will prepare the corpse for burial and assist the family in organizing funeral services. Afterwards, the body shall be taken to a private or public cemetery for the burial service.

Funeral HomesDead people are buried in a small area of land called a cemetery. There are cemeteries that are privately owned by a company, community, family or organization and only their workers, members and relatives can be buried there. There are also public cemeteries that are owned by the state and anybody can be buried there as long as they pay the necessary fees.The corpse is put inside a casket chosen by the family or provided by funeral homes. This casket shall then be buried in the designated area of the cemetery. The piece of land in a cemetery should have a mark that distinguishes it to be a burial ground. The owner of this area can only use it for burial purposes. He or she can use flowers, markers or headstone on the grave.

A funeral director runs the funeral services and he deals with clients and helps facilitate the proceedings. He can offer suggestions to the family of the deceased regarding the date of the viewing and the funeral service. He also prepares the deceased for burial and puts the body inside the casket. In the funeral home, he will set up a viewing room where the casket shall be placed.

The funeral director can give a suggestion as to where the deceased shall be buried, what headstone to use, which funeral song and music to be played and how the video presentation should be done if there is one. He will also set the tone for family and friends of the deceased and display a supportive, understanding and patient attitude to the family.

When choosing among funeral homes, there are certain things to remember. First, you need to have the budget for this as the services offered can be expensive. To be able to lower the costs, do not be pressured to pay for services that you do not need. For example, you should get quotes from different homes and then choose one which fits your budget and at the same time provides all the basic necessities.

Another thing to remember is that the deceased will not need embalming if you wish to bury it within a couple of days. Many people prefer not to have their loved-one embalmed, especially when they see what this process entails. It is the process of removing all the body from the body.

Be aware that bodies cannot be preserved by sealed caskets so the additional cost is really not worth it. However, there are families who want to give the best to their deceased loved one so they buy the best casket they can afford. Ask your funeral director if it is alright to bring your own casket, especially if you can get one at a cheaper price. A good casket is less than $600.

Funeral parlours offer packages so check them all to get the one that fits your needs. If you are really on a tight budget, you may plan and have your own services. However, this will entail hard work and it will not give you time to mourn for your loved-one.

If you really want to get the services of funeral homes, you can check out funeral societies and memorials as they can recommend affordable and reputable funeral services.


Working of Homeopathic Drops

The HCG drops of homeopathic do not require any difficult kind of processing they are already processed. The dieter simply needs to put the drop under his /her tongue and within seconds the process of initializing the metabolic system get started. In this step the gland called hypothalamus starts maintaining the amount of appetite and thirst. During this metabolic activity the extra fat becomes heated ,burnt and converted onto energy and as oft-quoted during the diet plan and treatment the calorie intake should not exceed from five hundred or above. Because of its ease and simplicity this method is frequently used by many persons.

1hcgdropsThe homeopathic HCG drops can also cause problems to one’s body if the routine is disturbed by the dieter if he/she becomes careless about the daily consumption of calories and exceeds the amount of it or become eagerly aggressive about the food then this method will take him/her to the position of horrible obesity instead of a perfect figure. Another condition that rarely occurs is that of a full stop when nothing is happening, no increase in weight or no loss in weight and this all occurs by the reason of disturbance in all over the process.

In all respect the method of weight reduction through HCG drops especially homeopathic drops is the best method ever because there is no need or difficulty in its intake and not worry about the preparation of injection on daily basis it simply requires the punctuality and disciplined work of the dieter if he/she really wants to be slim the they have to take care of themselves. Drops are in reach of almost every person whether rich or poor. If you want to know more about the benefits of HCG drops visit site.

Being obese or fat is always problematic whether you are man or a woman there certain things that you want to enjoy but your weight do not allow you to those things e.g. You restrict yourself from doing stunts and activities and you can also not wear fit and stylish dresses.

While there is a lot of controversial talks about the abrupt loss of weight by using HCG drops. The plan that Dr. Simeons has introduced is far more popular among the people seeking up for effective weight loss programs. So despite all the controversies the HCG has been proven scientifically by the Simeons findings that it has a great effect on the weight loss with great result and quick weight loss. It has been suggested by the Simeons findings that the HCG is a hormone that is actually present in both genders males and females. But the different comes when compared to an expecting mother; the amount of HCG present in pregnant women is at its peak. The actual function of the HCG drops is to increase the metabolic rate in the body by utilizing adipose fats in order to increase the energy level in pregnant women for better and fast growth of the developing child. For this reason Simeons has suggested that the hormone can be synthetically prepared and administer through injections as well as oral drops that can liquefy the fatty gatherings in obese people.

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